Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Review on Low Power Microelectronics

Prateek Srivastava


The transistor was invented in the late 1940s, and the integrated circuit was invented in the late 1950s, ushering in the time of low-power microelectronics. Battery-operated goods like as watches, ear monitors, implantable cardioverter artificial hearts, pocket calculators, pagers, cellphones, and potentially the hand-held mobile microchips terminal have been the most demanding uses of low power microelectronics in the past. Low-power microelectronics, on the other hand, swiftly evolved from a significant tributary to the mainstream of microelectronics in the early 1990s. The main reasons for this shift were rising transistor packing density and CMOS microchip clock frequencies, which pushed heat removal and power distribution to the forefront of the difficulties confronting microelectronics advancement. Microelectronics is an area of electronics that makes use of very small, or micro, components to make electronics. The sector continues to flourish as demand for compact, low-cost devices grows. Research, reliability, and manufacturing are the three key areas of attention. Low-power electronics, like laptop CPUs, are electronics that were designed to use less electricity than typical, generally at a cost.

Future potential for low power gigascale integration (GSI) will be controlled by a pyramid of conceptual and applied restrictions whose levels can be classified as (1) basic, (2) material, (3) device, (4) circuit, and (5) system, according to the thesis of this discussion. Semiconductor materials such as silicon and germanium are used to make microelectronic devices. Microelectronic versions of classic electronics designs, and components can be discovered.

Full Text:



Meindl JD. Low power microelectronics: Retrospect and prospect. Proceedings of the IEEE. 1995 Apr;83(4):619-35.

Liang YC, Samudra GS, Huang CF. Power microelectronics: device and process technologies. 2009 May 20.

Noyce RN. Microelectronics. Scientific American. 1977 Sep 1;237(3):62-9.

Nahar MM, Ma B, Guye K, Chau QH, Padilla J, Iyengar M, Agonafer D. Microscale evaporative cooling technologies for high heat flux microelectronics devices: Background and recent advances. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2021 Jul 25;194:117109.

Zeb A, de Andrade Romero M, Baiguskarov D, Aitbayev S, Strelets K. LED lightbulbs as a source of electricity saving in buildings. InMatec Web of conferences 2016 (Vol. 73, p. 02004). EDP Sciences.

Rüedi PF, Bishof A, Augustyniak MK, Persechini P, Nagel JL, Pons M, Emery S, Chételat O. Ultra low power microelectronics for wearable and medical devices. InDesign, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2017 2017 Mar 27 (pp. 1426-1431). IEEE.

Hsu MT, Lin YH, Jing-Cheng Y. Low power high gain CMOS LNA based on inverter cell and self-body bias for UWB receivers. Microelectronics Journal. 2014 Nov 1;45(11):1463-9.

Ivey B. nanoWatt and nanoWatt XLP™ Technologies: An Introduction to Microchip‟ s Low-Power Devices. AN1267, Microchip. 2009.

Zainol MZ, Mustapha F, Sultan MT, Yidris N. Implementation of extreme low power micro-controller for a wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) system. InApplied Mechanics and Materials 2012 (Vol. 225, pp. 344-349). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.

Nishizawa JI, Terasaki T, Shibata J. Field-effect transistor versus analog transistor (static induction transistor). IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. 1975 Apr;22(4):185-97.

Jain S, Khera N. Development of smart Human Machine Interface for solar powered appliances. In2015 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON) 2015 Dec 17 (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

da Graça GC, Augusto A, Lerer MM. Solar powered net zero energy houses for southern Europe: Feasibility study. Solar Energy. 2012 Jan 1;86(1):634-46.



  • There are currently no refbacks.